In agriculture, productivity appears to have been enhanced by bringing market disciplines and expertise about cultivation and quality standards to bear. Fourth, we use cardinal quantitative measures only, avoiding qualitative judgments that are often used in expert assessments. Secondary data from practice were also investigated for special characteristics of vaccine supply chains in humanitarian aid networks. Clay asks whether tying food aid matters. More recent studies, while taking a look back in history, have revealed a mix of strategies for more flexible models.
How should one score that? First, the study assesses the effectiveness of the various ways in which food aid can promote food security and poverty alleviation. These indicators tend to be detailed, and so it is easy to end up with many indicators, and indeed there are indices that have hundreds of sub-components. The assessment that was developed by myself, at Brookings, and Nancy Birdsall at the Center for Global Development, is a tool and methodology that is designed to provide the information needed to answer these questions. Using panel data from Ethiopia, we find that despite relatively poor targeting of the food aid, the programs contribute to better consumption outcomes, largely via intra-village risk sharing. This will mean that those who are left out of the program for example, the old and the infirm could be worse off.
In terms of the use of food aid, three categories are distinguished: programme food aid is supplied as a resource transfer providing balance of payments BoP or budgetary support; project food aid is usually provided to support specific poverty alleviation and disaster prevention activities, targeted on specific beneficiary groups or areas; relief food aid is targeted on, and freely distributed to, victims of natural or man-made disasters. To enhance independence, most evaluation units rely on consultants to conduct evaluations. A serious monitoring mechanism was put in place. They invariably said that they supported improved governance and anti-corruption ahead of other options, including providing funding to their central governments. In fact, around half of the agencies reported concerns over inadequate resourcing for high quality and rigorous impact evaluation. How is evaluation managed and resourced in development agencies? First, we use as wide a source of data as possible and conduct our analysis both at the level of a donor country and at the level of each of its aid agencies.
It reviews the conceptual and empirical challenges associated with evaluating the impact of food aid and surveys the main analytical techniques that are used in such evaluations. Food aid has also been countercyclical within countries with the greatest need. The use of evaluations needs to be systematised, for instance, by integrating the consultation of relevant reports into the planning process for new programmes or country strategies. This publication examines these questions and proposes a framework for in-depth analysis of coherence issues in five main policy areas where fisheries and development policies interact, namely environmental, technology, economic, social, and governance policies. The amount of food aid provided is also insufficient to mitigate contemporaneous shortfalls in consumption. Households in developing countries use a variety of informal mechanisms to cope with risk, including mutual support and risk-sharing.
Second, we lose quite a lot when we only look at quantitative indicators and ignore the nuanced issues of development. First, we have found that grant mechanisms rather than budget support work best. In this paper we look into the extent to which food aid helps to smooth consumption by reducing the impact of negative shocks, taking into account informal risk-sharing arrangements. They are said to be particularly close to the poor, as many of them directly cooperate with local target groups, circumventing recipient governments with a reputation of corruption. Summary of published research A recent article by food aid guru Ed Clay sets out current thinking about the effectiveness of food aid.
Thanks to this alliance, the company has found opportunities to encourage new businesses, such as cosmetic product lines from shea butter. For millions of people in developing countries, fisheries represent a means of livelihood, a source of food and nutrition, and a source of wealth for economic growth. Partners should nonetheless think more about how farmers who do not meet productivity requirements in particular markets can diversify into other agribusiness, such as food processing and packaging, or even switch to other areas, such as tourism. However, Congress has so far rejected such proposals. In its silent crisis, the anticorruption field and movement has not been able to effectively transition from the awareness-raising stage to the concrete action-oriented stage, nor from a supply side public sector management narrow focus to one encompassing the most relevant demand side challenges, and one that embraces a multitude of stakeholders. Furthermore, once we draw the implications of the crisis, the particular priorities within governance may need to be altered in moving forward.
A cash-for-work program would typically enhance the demand for food, cause food prices to rise and result in more food in the hands of those who have received the wages. She has had the courage to address the challenge of corruption faced by recipient countries. The decision to fund local purchase or imported food depends on risks of distorting the local economy, whether the transfer of food is efficient and whether other poverty reduction objectives are addressed. The telling results of one such recent survey of stakeholders in this case commissioned by the World Bank is in. For instance, the case study of Chile brings up important insights from its financial crisis in the early 1980s, and the country experience also offers important state-of-the-arts methods to carry out public-private infrastructure investments with more probity and transparencypublic-private partnerships. It is also important that alliances, while learning from mistakes, showcase their successes. The paper examines the cyclical properties of food aid with respect to food availability in recipient countries, with a view to assessing its impact on consumption in some 150 developing countries and transition economies, covering 1970 to 2000.
Lessons from evaluations need to be better formulated and targeted to specific audiences in accessible and useable ways. This is the opening paragraph of Ravallion 2003 and seems to condemn all safety nets, whether transferred in food or cash, as putting brakes on the economic development process. Kiel Institute for the World Economy, Working Paper 1383, October. A case study of aid allocation for Sweden. There was widespread acknowledgement of insufficient human resources and of weak technical skills, particularly in new or complex areas of aid, such as budget support, governance or conflict. Most development agencies and multilateral development institutions have a single central evaluation unit overseeing programme-level evaluations.
First, the study assesses the effectiveness of the various ways in which food aid can promote food security and poverty alleviation. Adding to the complexity, there are so many non-aid factors that affect these broad outcomes, like international food and energy prices, the global recession, world interest rates, trade credits and the like, that trying to identify the impact of aid becomes almost impossible. Yet the antecedents and magnitude of the current global financial crisis offers a unique opportunity to embark on bolder governance reforms and aid strategies than before, among rich, emerging and developing countries. One is to realise that partners share risk, but do not make that risk disappear. There is also evidence consistent with crowding out of informal insurance linked to food aid programmes.
Around 90% of global food aid was tied in 2002. In contrast, most local purchases or regionally sourced imports are relatively efficient ways of providing food aid. Fish often constitutes the sole source of protein for many people, especially the poor. Selected Implications Some circumspection and humility by traditional donors is in order, since the example starts at home. At that time official donors agreed on certain targets to be met by 2011. Instead, we tried to include some indicators that those who work on fragile states would do better in like the poverty selectivity and other indicators that those who work in other areas would do well in like governance selectivity. And recipient governments often see conditionality as being reshaped rather than reduced, and their own coordination on capacity development is wanting.